If a woman could not get conceived even after having
unprotected sex for a prolonged period (a year or more), then infertility may
be one of the causes. Infertility is not gender oriented and it equally affects
women and men.
Infertility is categorized as primary and secondary. If a
woman cannot conceive or a man cannot make his partner conceive and give birth
to a child, the person is referred to be affected by primary infertility. And secondary
infertility refers to a person who was able to conceive or make his partner
conceive at least once but failed in the subsequent attempts.
Infertility In Women:
The various factors that contribute towards infertility in
women are listed below:
- The ovaries may not produce or have
problems in producing eggs.
- Problems in ovulation and immature
eggs are produced.
- Problems in pituitary gland.
- Damages or scars in ovary due to a
surgery that was conducted to remove cysts.
- Rare case of possibility of premature
menopause and thereby having problem in ovulation.
- Problems in fallopian tubes like
infection because of any sexually transmitted diseases, abdominal diseases(leading
to scarring), surgery in abdomen that had caused damage to fallopian tubes or
due to ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy occurs in the tube)
- Excess growth in lining of uterus
- Hormonal problems that leads to non-fertilization
- Polyps and fibroids present in uterus
- Age factor, excessive smoking, and
alcohol consumption, tumor, chemotherapy, diabetes, thyroid, obesity, excessive
athletic activity, any pelvic inflammatory disease or poor nutrition are other
causes for female infertility.
may take blood test to check for hormone levels, endometrial biopsy to check
the lining of the uterus, laparoscopy, and hysterosalpingography to find out
scar tissues and blockage in tubes.
Infertility In Men
Most of the factors are common between a male and
female infertility. Age, hormonal imbalance, smoking, and alcohol consumption,
exposure to toxins, drugs, cancer treatments, chemotherapy, and any other
medications that affect fertility, poor nutrition, and stress are some of the common
factors for men and women. The men specific factors are listed below:
- Low sperm count
- Low quality of sperm
- Sexual problems like ejaculation
which may be retrograde or premature ejaculation
- Blockage in the tube that carries
- Erectile dysfunction.
- Problems may also occur when vasectomy
is done and reversal of vasectomy is not successful.
- Varicoceles, the enlargement of
varicose veins that prevent blood supply get developed in scrotum.
- Wearing tight fitting dress that
increases the temperature and decreases the sperm production.
Evaluation of the sperm quantity and quality by semen
analysis is employed to diagnose male infertility. Other tests like blood
tests, imaging tests and genetic tests are done to evaluate hormonal problems,
structural problems and to find out genetic diseases if any.
upon the underlying problems, treatments by corrective surgeries, medications
for hormonal imbalance, In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) or Intra Uterine Inseminations
(IUI) are available for infertility.
medical reasons, lifestyle changes like regular exercises, healthy habits, and
consumption of nutritious food can prevent both male and female infertility.